Scroll down for a range of TJ benchbooks, articles and other resources for judges.
WHAT IS TJ?
Therapeutic Jurisprudence (TJ) is a legal philosophy or “lens” for analysing the law and legal systems and developing justice innovations.
The use of the word “therapeutic” is often misunderstood. TJ does not seek to turn judges into therapists, for courts to require people to do therapy.
The term “therapeutic” in TJ refers more broadly to concepts of human dignity, psychological health and wellbeing.
In the criminal courts, these concepts are integral to supporting people’s rehabilitation as well as a shift to a better, more fulfilling life. These concepts are also important for the healing of victims and communities that are harmed by offending.
TJ has underpinned the development of specialist or problem solving courts such as drug courts, mental health courts and family violence courts. TJ practices have also been used in mainstream courts and tribunals in a range of jurisdictions.
TJ is not only relevant to criminal law, TJ has also driven innovation in a range of other legal areas such as mental health law, family law, child neglect cases, environmental law, neighbourhood disputes and civil law.
Taking a TJ approach we ask: How can our laws, legal processes and/or the roles of judges be changed to increase therapeutic outcomes or wellbeing?
It is important to note that TJ seeks to enhance what judges do but it does not seek to usurp important legal norms such as due process, proportionality etc.
TJ is a multidisciplinary approach to the law. When taking a TJ approach, court processes, court programs and judges can draw on the social sciences – such as criminology, psychology, social work, alcohol and drug recovery and mental health recovery. We can draw on these disciplines to inform how we can improve our legal systems, to make legal systems more focused on the humans who are affected by them – victims, offenders, litigants and communities.
Because TJ draws on other disciplines that are constantly evolving, TJ practices are also constantly evolving. Some TJ practices that have evolved to date include:
- Foundational practices of procedural justice or procedural fairness.
- Restorative justice processes and alternative dispute resolution such as victim-offender medication.
- Solution-focused judging practices including techniques that support autonomy, show an ethic of care, motivational interviewing, active listening, two-way communication, collaborative problem solving and goal and strategy setting.
- Trauma informed judging.
Click here for more comprehensive introduction to TJ. Or scroll below for some great resources on TJ judging,
TJ BENCH BOOKS FOR JUDGES
Problem-solving in Canadian courtrooms: A guide to therapeutic justice (2nd Edition, National Judicial Institute, Canada) A manual for Canadian judges but for use internationally. This handbook provides an introduction to problem-solving principles and practices, as well as practical suggestions and guidelines on how to incorporate them within and beyond the courtroom setting.
Effective Judging for Busy Judges(National Judicial College, USA)
Michael S. King, Solution-Focused Judging Bench Book (2009) (Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration) A manual for Australian judges and magistrates but of use internationally. This manual covers a range of judicial skills that can be applied in a mainstream courtroom.
And adapted for a particular jurisdiction… Mental Health Tribunal (Victoria) for civil mental health hearings: A guide to Solutions-focused hearings
Procedural Justice Tips – Centre for Court Innovation
Therapeutic Jurisprudence Challenge to the Judiciary by Michael King
Realising the potential of judging by Michael S. King
What can mainstream courts learn from problem solving courts – by Michael King
Mainstreaming TJ into traditional courts_suggestions for judges and practitioners– by Judge Michael Jones
From Alternative to the New Normal_Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Mainstream Courts by Magistrate Pauline Spencer
A technical assistance guide for drug court judges on drug treatment services, Bureau of Justice Assistance (USA) While this guide was developed for drug court judges it has a lot a great information that would be of use to judges working with offenders who are addicted to drugs and/or alcohol in the mainstream court setting
The TJ Court Craft Series: A series of blogs for judicial officers who wish to explore how Therapeutic Jurisprudence approaches can improve their effectiveness in court. Sign up for the TJ Court Craft Series by subscribing to this blog (Simply enter your email in the right hand margin and click “follow”).
Innovative Approaches to Justice – the Neighbourhood Justice Experience. 6 modules (with short videos) that discuss the types of approaches used at the Neighbourhood Justice Centre (Melbourne Australia) and how these can be used in mainstream court settings.
A curriculum for judges on self -represented litigants (from the Centre on Court Access to Justice for all – a project of the National Centre for State Courts). The Centre also has some excellent webinars.
EVIDENCE BASED SENTENCING PRACTICES TO REDUCE RECIDIVISM
For links in this regard see our resource page “What Works – Evidence Based Practice”
TJ VISION/POLICY STATEMENTS
Conference of Chief Justices/ Conference of State Court Administrators (USA) Resolution 22 and Resolution IV (2000) – In Support of Problem-Solving Courts Link here
Conference of Chief Justices/ Conference of State Court Administrators (USA) Resolution 22 (2004) – In support of Problem Solving Court Principles and Methods Link here
PRACTICAL TOOLS FOR JUDGES
Setting goals and strategies for rehabilitation – by Dr Michael King
Solution Focused Sentencing: Questions and Answers – by Greg Connellan (a questionnaire given by a magistrate to a defendant about to be sentenced).
BOOKS FOR JUDGES
Bruce J. Winick and David B. Wexler, Judging in a Therapeutic Key: Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Courts (2003). Digital version also available on Kindle.
RESOURCES FOR JUDICIAL SELF CARE/ WELLBEING
An Australian based resource for Judicial Stress and Wellbeing